Actually, IoT (Internet of Things) was raised as early as the year of 1999 with a definition that all the things are connected with Internet through information sensing devices such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) so that intelligent identification and management can be achieved. Thus, simply speaking, IoT is actually a sensing network established based on RFID technology.
IoT Fundamental Principles and RFID Technology
Based on computer Internet, IoT actually establishes the Internet connecting things by depending on technology of RFID and radio data communication. Therefore, one of essential core technologies of IoT lies in RFID. In this network, things are allowed to communicate with each other without necessity of human's operation. The core of IoT lies in things' automatic identification and information interconnection and sharing through computer Internet based on RFID technology that is just a technology leading things to “speak”. Within the phase of IoT, RFID tag stores information with regulations and interoperability that will be automatically stored in central information system through radio data communication system so that things can be identified and information exchange and sharing can be achieved through open Internet.
• IoT Composition and Working Principles
a. Origin of IoT
Similar with Internet that closely connects people around the world, Internet with RFID technology applied is capable of connecting all the things together from all over the world. Moreover, all the things are allowed to “communicate” with each other.
b. Composition of IoT
Typical IoT is composed by three elements: RFID system, Savant system and Internet system, which can be demonstrated in below image.
RFID system primarily contains RFID tag, reader and data exchange and management system (processor) software; Savant system is composed by Savant server, ONS (object naming service) server, PML (physical markup language) server and corresponding data software; Internet system is composed by computer system and network server.
c. Working Principle
RFID reader in IoT system is capable of leading RF module to transmit reading signal to tag and receiving response signals transmitted by tag. Furthermore, it is capable of decoding object identification information on electronic tag and then transmitting object identification information together with other information on tag to Savant system for processing. Generally speaking, RFID reader's working frequency maintains the same as that of tag.
Based on above figure indicating IoT structure, after reader receives carrier information from tag and modulates and decodes the transmission signals, it will send the information to Savant system for processing, after which the information will be transmitted to Internet. After that, ONS is applied to find the storage location of things on Internet and ONS is capable of indicating the server with storage information of things for Savant system and transmitting the information described in this file.
• RFID System Working Principles
a. System Composition
In accordance with different applications, RFID systems perhaps differ from each other on composition elements. But basically, RFID system is composed by tag, reader and data exchange and management system. Electronic tag is composed by coupling component and chip containing security logic.
b. Working Principle
As an advanced automatic identification technology, RFID implements non-contact full duplex data communications through RF to get target things identified. RFID tag consists of chip and antenna and each tag features unique product code.
RFID system can transmit data between transponder and sensor transceiver. The following figure shows working principle of RFID system.
When RFID system is working, RF signals with a certain frequency are first transmitted by reader through antenna. As RFID tag enters reader's working field, the antenna will transmit induced current so that RFID tag will capture energy that will be activated to transmit their own code information to reader. When it comes to passive systems, reader will transmit RF signals at a certain frequency through coupling components. As soon as RFID enters this field, energy will be obtained through coupling components to drive chips and reader for communications. After reader reads self-coded information, it'll send it to data exchange and management system. When it comes to active system, after tag enters reader working area, embedded battery will supply power in order to complete communications with reader.
Applications and Future Development of IoT Technology
Due to unique identification of RFID tag on things, RFID technology has received massive focus on its applications. IoT is a hot spot for the application of RFID. As a wireless edition of a bar code, RFID features obvious advantages including water resistance, magnetic resistance, high temperature resistance, long shelf life, far reading distance, encryption and storage information modification. Furthermore, it is capable of recognizing objects moving at a high speed and simultaneously recognizing multiple tags, which is convenient and fast.
IoT based on RFID technology establishes an Internet of Things leading to real-time sharing between things around the globe through taking advantage of technologies of RFID, antenna data communication etc. Through labeling all the things with RFID tags, an information network concerning all the things participating in distribution is set up based on current Internet and it fails to effectively work sometimes due to heterogeneous components. As a result, organic and harmonious relationship between different parts in a system has to be achieved. IoT allows people to get access to information visit and computing service at any time and at any place, which will bring forward deep influence to each phase of distribution including manufacturing, sales, transportation, application and recycling and governmental, corporate and personal behaviors.
Issues Concerning IoT
• Issues on Standard
Although IoT provides people a new era where we are allowed to enjoy more comfortable, more convenient and more secured life, IoT has to face up with some bottleneck problems to be solved one of which is technical standard. Due to different criteria that are available in different countries around the world, different countries should strive to go for active cooperation in order to get heterogeneous standard successfully solved.
• Issues on Price
Apart from unified standard discussed above, business mode of IoT in commercial application isn't so clear. Furthermore, due to high cost of chips contributing to IoT manufacturing, it seems impractical to implant all the things into identifying chips.
• Issues on Security
Another issue calling for emergent settlement concerning IoT lies in how to implement data security and privacy protection. In IoT, due to closer connection between things and between things and humans, how to protect massive data and users' privacy should be urgently solved. Absence of reliable security scheme makes it difficult for data information in read-only tag to be well protected. When it comes to read and write label, the risk is available that information will possibly viciously modified. If the information stored in electronic label is stolen or even viciously modified, a huge loss will be caused. The only solution to all the issues lies in research on encryption technology of RFID label. Encryption technology can be used to stop unauthorized pryers from obtaining or manipulating electronic label information.
• Issues on Data Management Platform
Once IoT technology comes into authentic applications, how to effectively manage and apply data brought by IoT technology makes it possible for tens of billions of things to go through real-time dynamic management. Therefore, such a data management platform should be established, which consists of back-end database, application program and correct analysis capability. It is capable of processing the large amount of data generated by RFID system. The platform should feature common language that multiple users can co-use and all the recognition systems can make use of. RFID readers and latar information supporting system, identification system, security system and information system for each phase have to carry a public standard interface with unified regulations. This platform should set different access rights for different users and ensure encryption in terms of information communication. In addition, it should be compatible with mass information reading support requirement and can simultaneously support thousands of electronic labels' identifications and verify them.
PCBCart fully ready to contribute to IoT development
Since IoT is correlated with so many aspects in this industry and PCBCart has been one of leading PCB (printed circuit board) manufacturers and assemblers around the world for more than one decade, PCBCart has been striving to make constant progress compatible with new development of technologies in terms of electronics. Need reliable hardware supporting your IoT programs? PCBCart is definitely your optimal selection. Quote for PCB fabrication and PCB assembly now and accelerate your IoT products into electronics market.
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